A male circumcision can be a good idea but there are also risks. Scarring, STIs and infections are just a couple of the risks. There are ways to minimize the risks.
A key public health issue involving male circumcision involves the prevalence of sexually transmitted illnesses (STIs). We will analyze meta-analyses of data on the subject to make sense and help you understand the data. HPV is our first topic.
Van Howe claims many things that are not supported by the data in Van Howes article. It claims that circumcision can be used to prevent STIs. It fails to review the studies that support this claim. Instead, it draws convoluted conclusions that are unlikely be scientifically justified.
Although the article is stuffed with statistics, it lacks scientific credibility. It is written in colloquial English, and is full of obfuscation.
Van Howe did not include in his meta analysis the more striking findings of several other research. One study showed that male circumcision has a positive effect on HIV transmission, with a lower incidence from females to males. Another study found that male circumcision protects against HSV-2. Another study concluded that circumcised men are less likely to contract GUD.
Van Howe’s summary of the evidence is not only false, but also unsupported. Furthermore, it is based upon flawed meta-analyses which produce a false conclusion.
The most obvious difference between circumcised men and uncircumcised men is the glans. However, there are other sites on the body that are vulnerable to infection.
This includes the urine cavity, which could contain the DNA from high-risk HPV types. HPV can increase the risk of HIV for men who have HPV within their urethral cavity. Besides, a better overall measure of the effects of male circumcision on STIs would include sampling from multiple areas.
A circumcised man is less likely than a woman to contract a sexually transmissible infection. Their partners are less at risk of contracting high-risk humanpapillomavirus that can lead to cervical Cancer.
The benefits of male circumcision for female partners are well documented. The lower risk of HPV infection, for instance, translates into a reduction in the likelihood of bacterial vaginosis, genital ulcers and gonorrhoea. It also helps protect against a number of genital cancers.
A recent study showed that sex with an uncircumcised man was associated with a 4-fold increase in the risk of developing cervical cancer. This is an important finding, as women are a large part of the global burden of cervical cancer. In fact, if all men were circumcised, the rate of cervical cancer could drop by about 23 to 43 percent.
Another study revealed that women with a circumcised female partner were more likely get rid of HPV than women who are not married to a man. They were able 75% to clear up HPV in the first 12 months of sex than women who had never been circumcised.
The findings are encouraging, but there are some potential drawbacks to circumcision. Uncircumcised men have a greater chance of developing phimosis (a condition that affects the foreskin, and is linked to a higher risk of penile carcinoma). Phimosis is associated with poor hygiene, an increase in the number of genital warts and a higher chance of penile cancer.
However, medical male circumcision is not known to have many adverse effects. Some studies show that male circumcision may provide protection against prostate carcinoma.
Although these results are encouraging, more research is needed in order to confirm the validity. It is important to follow up on older studies to verify if the association between cervical cancer and MC is still valid.
Male circumcision is a preventive intervention for HIV, but little is known about its impact on syphilis. Previous studies suggest that circumcision could prevent HIV-uninfected people from getting syphilis.
These findings are important since syphilis and other sexually transmitted infected infections (STIs), have a variety of adverse health consequences. Some have severe sexual consequences, while some are more serious like infertility. Vertical transmission can occur for many years after an individual becomes infected. For pregnant women, infection can result in fetal death, which in some cases can occur shortly after delivery.
In addition to syphilis, uncircumcised men may be at higher risk of other STIs. This may be due to abrasions that cause pathogen entry or to a warm, moist location under the foreskin. STIs may also be more common in those who engage in risky sexual behavior.
Separate analyses were done to examine the relationship between circumcision and syphilis in HIV+ and HIV-uninfected males. These analyses revealed that circumcision did not affect the rate for HIV-infected men to acquire syphilis but it did impact the rate of syphilis among HIV-uninfected people.
The overall risk reduction from circumcision was between 40% and 75%. The magnitude of effect modification was greater for men whose circumcision occurred before their first sexual intercourse.
Overall, this study suggests that male sex circumcision is a safe and effective intervention that can reduce the incidences of syphilis. To improve the coverage of this prevention program, however, more research needs to be done.
Research has shown that male circumcision is particularly effective in situations where HIV/AIDS comorbidity is high. It may also be of benefit in low resource settings.
Prevention of infections
In the past, circumcision was associated lower risk of certain sexually transmitted illnesses (STIs). Despite the fact that this is still true, studies indicate that the benefits of circumcision have been limited to M. and gonorrhea.
Research suggests that female partners with circumcised men have a greater protective effect. HSV-2 prevalence among women in India was 1.7%, according to a study. A sub-Saharan Africa study however found no protection against the virus.
Another study from Tanzania showed a non-significant 18% decline in HIV incidence among women pregnant with circumcised male partners. However, a large prospective cohort study involving 2,946 HIV-negative partners found a 15% drop in the likelihood of a female partner developing a high risk HPV infection.
There are other ways to prevent infection after male circumcision. Men can be taught that it is possible to clean the penis under its foreskin regularly. They can also receive petroleum jelly or a topical anti-biotic. They can also be anesthetized to circumcise themselves. The procedure is generally performed in 10 minutes. Nevertheless, the recovery time is longer.circumcision centre adelaide
A systematic review compiled data about the impact of circumcision on STI risks. It included cohort studies, case-control studies, and meta analyses. Studies were selected based on their methodology.
The Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network determined the quality of studies. These studies were then divided into studies of genital and gonorrhea and chlamydia. A small study from New Zealand showed a significant protective effect.
Despite the evidence, however, it is difficult to quantify the extent that circumcision prevents infectious diseases. Safe sexual practices should be followed until more data become available.
Male circumcision has a wide spectrum of complications. The most common complications are infection and bleeding. If you have any concerns after circumcision, consult a professional immediately. Your doctor should also know about any allergies and medications.
Your skin may turn dark after undergoing a procedure like circumcision. It may take several weeks for your skin to heal. You should use a condom while you wait for the healing process to begin. This will prevent urinary retention and keep your penis clean.
After surgery, your doctor will provide you with instructions on how to take care of your wound. During the first few weeks, you may feel discomfort when passing urine. To relieve the pressure, you can raise your knees higher than normal to make it more foetus. During this period, it is important to not place your head on your back.
There are many ways to reduce scarring following male circumcision. You can use a non-sterile dressing to reduce scarring and Vaseline to prevent blood stains from the bandage.
Another method is to place a bell-shaped plastic device between the glans, the foreskin. It will eventually come off on its own.
A laser treatment is also available. Two patients had multiple small dark melanocytic nevi. In those two cases, NdYAG lasers was used.
Keloids can also be a concern. Keloids are thick tissue growths which can form on top of scars. They can grow to large sizes and may sometimes resemble cancerous tumors. A surgeon may be able to remove them depending upon their size.
Avoid contact sports as well as other energetic activities. Take a few days off work.
For the first few weeks after undergoing circumcision, men should not be sexually active. It is important to not scratch the wounds during this time. Scratching can disrupt the healing process.